A core mission of the Department of Anesthesiology is to generate new knowledge that will advance the understanding and practice of Anesthesiology. The Department is heavily funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health and for over a decade has ranked in the top five in NIH dollars. The Department’s research efforts are organized into three divisions, the Division of Basic Research, the Washington University Pain Center (WUPC), and the Division of Clinical & Translational Research (DoCTR). Additionally the Department of Anesthesiology and the St Louis College of Pharmacy have established the Center for Clinical Pharmacology that is focused on human-oriented research with the goal of improving the use of current and new therapeutics and diagnostics. The Division of Basic Research consists of ten principal investigators studying mechanisms of hypoxic- and immunological-mediated cell death and organ injury, general anesthetic mechanisms, ion channel function, novel intracellular signaling pathways, and the neurobiology of stress and addiction. The WUPC consists of four principal and six affiliated investigators whose labs investigate the neurobiological bases of nociceptive conditions including migraine, acute and chronic pain, and itching. Five principal investigators form the core of DoCTR, which studies mechanisms of inter-individual variability in drug response and anesthetic outcomes, anesthetic and opioid pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug interactions, pharmacogenetics, biomarkers of disease and organ injury, clinical simulation/education research, postoperative cognitive dysfunction, and functional neuroimaging of anesthesia and drug disposition. Research projects for students, residents, and postdoctoral fellows are currently available in all three divisions.